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Aztec Warrior: AD | Pohl, John, Hook, Adam | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. How to Be an Aztec Warrior | Macdonald, Fiona | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Aztec Warrior (GER) b. H. v. Soldier Hollow - Atanua (Monsun). Datum Geboren: Geschlecht: Hengst. Typ: Rennpferd. Rennerfolge: Sonstige. Aztec Warrior (GER) b. H. v. Soldier Hollow - Atanua (Monsun). Geburtsdatum: 8. March Geschlecht: Hengst. Typ: Rennpferd. Rennerfolge: Sonstige. Das Exo Terra® Azteken-Sortiment verleiht Ihrem Terrarium mit dem Aztec Warrior eine mystische mesoamerikanische Atmosphäre.

Aztec Warrior

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And together banding with their culturally-aligned, Nahuatl-speaking brethren from the allied cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan, the Mexica nobles and princes formed what is known as the Aztec Triple Alliance or the Aztec Empire.

This super-entity ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from the 15th century till the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.

As we can gather from the earlier entry, the Aztecs pertaining to an alliance of Nahuatl -speaking people were first and foremost a warrior society.

Relating to the last part of the statement, while the nobles and high-ranking members of the Aztec society played their crucial roles in both the political and military affairs, the Aztec military structure at least during the first half of 15th century theoretically adhered to the ideals of meritocracy.

Simply put, a commoner could also rise up to the rank of an Aztec warrior, on the condition that he proved his ferocity and valor in battle by not only killing but also capturing a certain number of enemies.

One of the first tasks the small boy had to perform related to the intensive physical labor of carrying heavy goods and crucial food supplies from the central marketplace.

And for that, he was only provided with a frugal meal of half a maize cake at the age of three, a full maize cake at the age of five, and one-and-a-half maize cake at the age of twelve.

These paltry portions encouraged the would-be Aztec warrior to subsist on meager food items. By the age of seven, the Aztec boy had to learn to maneuver his family boat and fish on Lake Texcoco.

Now we did mention that the Aztec military during the first half of the 15th-century theoretically adhered to a merit-based system.

However, as referenced in the Aztec Warrior AD by John Pohl , on the practical side of affairs, the warfare and military campaigns were conducted by the noble houses, who formed their own religiopolitical institutions.

Many of these schools were run by veteran warriors who were barely older than the pupils themselves, thus alluding to the demand and progression of military duties in the Aztec society.

In any case, one of the first tasks assigned to the teenager trainees focused on teamwork, and as such entailed investing their time in repairing and cleaning public works like canals and aqueducts.

This notion of societal interdependence was imparted from a very early age in most Aztec boys — which in many ways rather reinforced their sense of fraternity during actual military campaigns.

Contrary to popular ideas, discipline was one of the mainstays of the Aztec military — so much so that drunkenness during training could even result in the death penalty on rare occasions.

The youths were however introduced to real combat scenarios only during the major religious festivals that were mostly held in the central district of the city.

One of these series of ceremonies held between February and April was dedicated to the Aztec storm god Tlaloc and the war god Xipe , and the festivities inexorably brought forth their versions of vicious ritual combats.

Some of these scenarios sort of bridged the gap between bloody gladiatorial contests and melee fighting exhibitions, with high-ranking prisoners-of-war being forced to defend themselves from heavily armed Aztec opponents — which often resulted in fatalities.

At the same time, the veteran masters from both the Calmecac and Telpochcalli schools were asked to train their pupils in the art of handling various weapons, starting from slings, bows to spears and clubs.

These students were then encouraged to take part in mock battles against each other as teams, with reward systems of food and gifts.

These staged combat scenarios were perceived as rites of initiation for the young warriors, and as such the victors were often inducted into advanced training programs that focused on the handling of heavier melee weapons reserved for the elite fighters of the Aztec military.

The scope of ritual combat in the Aztec military was not just limited to the ceremonial confines of city-temple precincts, but rather extended to actual battlefields.

Interestingly enough, many of these Flower Wars participated by the young Calmecac and Telpochcalli warriors were conducted against the Tlaxcalans, who themselves constituted a powerful people with a Nahua cultural affinity shared with the Aztecs.

On occasions, the Aztecs reached a status-quo agreement with the mighty Tlaxcalans which outlined that the Xochiyaoyotl would be conducted in a bid to capture sacrificial prisoners, as opposed to conquering lands and taking away resources.

On the other hand, the status and rank of an Aztec warrior often depended on the number of capable enemies he had captured in battle. In essence, the Flowers Wars, while maintaining their seemingly vicious religious veneer, pushed the Aztec military into a nigh perpetual state of warfare.

Such ruthless actions, in turn, produced the most fierce, battle-ready warriors who were required by the realm to conquer and intimidate the other Mesoamerican city-states in the region.

As we fleetingly mentioned before, the Aztec warriors used a range of weapons in combat scenarios, from slings, bows to spears and clubs.

But the signature Mesoamerican weapon preferred by some Aztec warriors pertained to the atlatl or spear-thrower. Possibly having its origins in the coastal hunting weapons furnished by their predecessors, the atlatl was commonly used by various Mesoamerican cultures like Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Maya.

According to expert Thomas J. Elpel —. The spur is a point that fits into a cavity at the back of a four to six-foot-long dart spear.

The dart is suspended parallel to the board, held by the tips of the fingers at the handgrip. Although there is uncertainty about the exact ages that boys entered into the calmecac, according to evidence that recorded the king's sons entering at the age of five and sons of other nobles entering between the ages of six and thirteen, it seems that youth began their training here at a younger age than those in the telpochcalli did.

When formal training in handling weapons began at age fifteen, youth would begin to accompany the seasoned warriors on campaigns so that they could become accustomed to military life and lose the fear of battle.

At age twenty, those who wanted to become warriors officially went to war. The parents of the youth sought out veteran warriors, bringing them foods and gifts with the objective of securing a warrior to be the sponsor of their child.

Ideally, the sponsor would watch over the youth and teach him how to take captives. However, the degree to which the warrior looked after and helped the noble's child depended greatly on the amount of payment received from the parents.

Thus, sons of high nobility tended to succeed more often in war than those of lower nobility. However, while parallels can be drawn between the organization of Aztec and Western military systems, as each developed from similar functional necessities, the differences between the two are far greater than the similarities.

The members of the Aztec army had loyalties to many different people and institutions, and ranking was not based solely on the position one held in a centralized military hierarchy.

Thus, the classification of ranks and statuses cannot be defined in the same manner as that of the modern Western military. Next were the commoners yaoquizqueh.

And finally, there were commoners who had taken captives, the so-called tlamanih. Ranking above these came the nobles of the "warrior societies".

These tlahuiztli became gradually more spectacular as the ranks progressed, allowing the most excellent warriors who had taken many captives to stand out on the battlefield.

The higher ranked warriors were also called "Pipiltin". Commoners excelling in warfare could be promoted to the noble class and could enter some of the warrior societies at least the Eagles and Jaguars.

Sons of nobles trained at the Calmecac, however, were expected to enter into one of the societies as they progressed through the ranks. Warriors could shift from one society and into another when they became sufficiently proficient; exactly how this happened is uncertain.

Each society had different styles of dress and equipment as well as styles of body paint and adornments. Tlamanih captor was a term that described commoners who had taken captives within the Aztec army, particularly those who had taken one captive.

Two captive warriors, recognizable by their red and black tlahuiztli and conical hats. Papalotl lit. Those Aztec warriors who demonstrated the most bravery and who fought well became either jaguar or eagle warriors.

Of all of the Aztec warriors, they were the most feared. Both the jaguar and eagle Aztec warriors wore distinguishing helmets and uniforms.

The jaguars were identifiable by the jaguar skins they wore over their entire body, with only their faces showing from within the jaguar head.

The eagle Aztec warriors, on the other hand, wore feathered helmets including an open beak. In the historical sources, it is often difficult to discern whether the word otomitl "Otomi" refers to members of the Aztec warrior society or members of the ethnic group who also often joined the Aztec armies as mercenaries or allies.

A celebrated member of this warrior sect was Tzilacatzin. Their bald heads and faces were painted one-half blue and another half red or yellow.

They served as imperial shock troops and took on special tasks as well as battlefield assistance roles when needed. Over six captives and dozens of other heroic deeds were required for this rank.

They apparently turned down captaincies in order to remain constant battlefield combatants. Recognizable by their yellow tlahuitzli, they had sworn not to take a step backward during a battle on pain of death at the hands of their comrades.

Because the Aztec empire was maintained through warfare or the threat of war with other cities, the gathering of information about those cities was crucial in the process of preparing for a single battle or an extended campaign.

Also of great importance was the communication of messages between the military leaders and the warriors on the field so that political initiatives and collaborative ties could be established and maintained.

As such, intelligence and communication were vital components in Aztec warfare. The four establishments principally used for these tasks were merchants, formal ambassadors, messengers, and spies.

Merchants, called pochteca singular: pochtecatl , were perhaps the most valued source of intelligence to the Aztec empire. As they traveled throughout the empire and beyond to trade with groups outside the Aztec's control, the king would often request that the pochteca return from their route with both general and specific information.

General information, such as the perceived political climate of the areas traded in, could allow the king to gauge what actions might be necessary to prevent invasions and keep hostility from culminating in large-scale rebellion.

As the Aztec's empire expanded, the merchant's role gained increasing importance. Because it became harder to obtain information about distant sites in a timely way, especially for those outside the empire, the feedback and warning received from merchants were invaluable.

Often, they were the key to the Aztec army's successful response to external hostility. If a merchant was killed while trading, this was a cause for war.

The Aztecs' rapid and violent retaliation following this event is testament to the immense importance that the merchants had to the Aztec empire.

Merchants were very well respected in Aztec society. When merchants traveled south, they transported their merchandise either by canoe or by slaves, who would carry a majority of the goods on their backs.

If the caravan was likely to pass through dangerous territory, Aztec warriors accompanied the travelers to provide much-needed protection from wild animals and rival cultures.

In return, merchants often provided a military service to the empire by spying on the empire's many enemies while trading in the enemy's cities.

Once the Aztecs had decided to conquer a particular city Altepetl , they sent an ambassador from Tenochtitlan to offer the city protection.

They would showcase the advantages cities would gain by trading with the empire. The Aztecs, in return, asked for gold or precious stones for the Emperor.

They were given 20 days to decide their request. If they refused, more ambassadors were sent to the cities. However, these ambassadors were used as up front threats.

Instead of trade, these men would point out the destruction the empire could and would cause if the city were to decline their offer.

They were given another 20 days. There were no more warnings. The cities were destroyed and their people were taken as prisoners.

The Aztecs used a system in which men stationed approximately 4. For example, the runners might be sent by the king to inform allies to mobilize if a province began to rebel.

Messengers also alerted certain tributary cities of the incoming army and their food needs, carried messages between two opposing armies, and delivered news back to Tenochtitlan about the outcome of the war.

While messengers were also used in other regions of Mesoamerica, it was the Aztecs who apparently developed this system to a point of having impressive communicative scope.

Prior to mobilization, formal spies called quimichtin lit. Mice were sent into the territory of the enemy to gather information that would be advantageous to the Aztecs.

Specifically, they were requested to take careful note of the terrain that would be crossed, fortification used, details about the army, and their preparations.

These spies also sought out those who were dissidents in the area and paid them for information.

The quimichtin traveled only by night and even spoke the language and wore the style of clothing specific to the region of the enemy.

Due to the extremely dangerous nature of this job they risked a torturous death and the enslavement of their family if discovered , these spies were amply compensated for their work.

The Aztecs also used a group of trade spies, known as the naualoztomeca. The naualoztomeca were forced to disguise themselves as they traveled.

They sought after rare goods and treasures. The naualoztomeca were also used for gathering information at the markets and reporting the information to the higher levels of pochteca.

Ahtlatl : perhaps lit. This weapon was considered by the Aztecs to be suited only for royalty and the most elite warriors in the army, and was usually depicted as being the weapon of the Gods.

Murals at Teotihuacan show warriors using this effective weapon and it is characteristic of the Mesoamerican cultures of central Mexico.

Warriors at the front lines of the army would carry the ahtlatl and about three to five tlacochtli, and would launch them after the waves of arrows and sling projectiles as they advanced into battle before engaging into melee combat.

The ahtlatl could also throw spears as its name implies "spear thrower". Tlacochtli : The "darts" launched from an Atlatl, not so much darts but more like big arrows about 5.

Tipped with obsidian, fish bones, or copper heads. Archers in the Aztec army were designated as Tequihua. Typically fletched with turkey or duck feathers.

The Aztecs used oval shaped rocks or hand molded clay balls filled with obsidian flakes or pebbles as projectiles for this weapon.

Bernal Diaz del Castillo noted that the hail of stones flung by Aztec slingers was so furious that even well armored Spanish soldiers were wounded.

Tlacalhuazcuahuitl : A blowgun consisting of a hollow reed using poisoned darts for ammunition. The darts used for this weapon were made out of sharpened wood fletched with cotton and usually doused in the neurotoxic secretions from the skin of tree frogs found in jungle areas of central Mexico.

The Aztec military was very structured, with varying ranks and orders available to join. The Aztec warriors trained diligently for the battlefield, their bravery and skill would be noted.

The weapons of the Aztec warriors were diverse and very unique, with a wide range available. The Aztec people settled in the valleys of Mexico back in the 6th century, and the foundations of an empire began.

It would be much later in the mid 13th century when the Aztec people hit their stride, and the Aztec warriors would fight and go to war for their society.

The Aztec people were very war focused. It was important for them to go to war to not only expand and ensure the success of their empire, but also to capture prisoners of war.

These prisoners of war would often be used as sacrifices in one of their many religious practises that defined the Aztec peoples.

The Aztec were highly militarized and it was an important part of their life. They had multiple rankings and orders that were earned and achieved by each individual Aztec.

The Aztec military had in essence traditional military style rankings, but they also added additional elements, rankings and orders that an Aztec warrior could achieve or gain membership too.

To achieve these rankings, or to join the orders required feats of bravery, skill and talent in battle. The primary foundation of these feats would be the capturing of sacrificial victims, which was hugely important to the Aztec people and their religious beliefs and practises.

For the Aztec warriors the ability to transcend their born status was truly possible, even commoners had the ability to achieve and move through the many rankings and order employed by the Aztec military.

The Aztec people were not metal forgers, this in turn affected the type of weaponry they built and used. Without iron, the commonly found metals were typically not suitable for blade construction, so the Aztecs used a local volcanic rock called Obsidian to create sharp edges.

These rock blades would be attached to wooden batons, creating a sword of sorts known to the Aztecs as the Macuahuitl. The Aztecs also employed plenty of other weaponry on the battlefield too, slings, spears, bows and arrows and clubs and maces were all common place.

Some of the most revered warriors in the times of the Online Strategiespiele Echtzeit Aztecs, Aztec Warrior Eagle and Jaguar warriors were also some of the most elite and battle ready warriors in the Aztec army. The Aztec state was centered Extreme Spielsucht political expansion and dominance of and exaction of tribute from other city states, and warfare was the basic dynamic force in Play Mortal Kombat 4 Online politics. It was also common that some of the Lottogewinner Heute ranking military officers in the Aztec military were priests also. In addition to their cremated bodies, they would be buried with jewelry, jaguar clays, and gold artifacts. Now we did mention that Spiele Wie Wer Bin Ich Aztec military during the first half of the 15th-century theoretically adhered to a merit-based system. In any case, one of the first tasks assigned to the teenager trainees focused on teamwork, and as such entailed investing their time in repairing and cleaning public works like canals and Gametwisst. If they refused, more ambassadors were sent to the cities. Besitzer: Stall Ullmann. Renntag T. Fell: b. Renntag After Work-Renntag mit sechs Galopprennen. Renntag Buchmacher Albers Steher Cup Rennerfolge: Sonstige Siege.

Aztec Warrior Video

Army Ranks and Promotion (Aztec History)

Aztec Warrior Video

Army Ranks and Promotion (Aztec History)

Aztec Warrior - Letzte Rennen:

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The ranking system of the ancient Aztecs was complex and multi layered, offering what we would consider traditional military rankings, and also having various orders and groups both inside and outside of those ranks.

Traditional military hierarchies and additional orders were interwoven to create a system that offered many paths for an Aztec warrior.

Starting out as a warrior in Aztec society really depended on your status, commoners and noble Aztecs would take different paths.

For the commoners, you would either start as a youth warrior, completing your training and you would have to prove your worth on the battlefield, with a cap on the height of the order you could attain.

For nobles the options were much more open, you would progress in warrior orders dependant on your. A large portion of rankings for Aztec warriors were based on how they performed on the battlefield, the ability for them to rise through the ranks was partially dependant on this.

Nobility also played a factor too, with more opportunity afforded to the upper social layers of the Aztec society, who received superior training and greater possibility of higher ranks.

The Aztec military structure as we previously mentioned mixed traditional military style rankings, and also warrior orders and classes that were grouped alongside the traditional ranks.

This mix of two types of rankings in essence gave growth for the natural leaders and the Aztecs who preferred to work at grass roots levels on the battlefield.

A picture from the Codex Mendoza depicting the progression of an Aztec warrior as they grow in stature based on their captives from battle.

It was common for these positions to be held by nobles who were afforded much more opportunity for the upper echelon of positions than the Aztec commoners.

It was also common that some of the high ranking military officers in the Aztec military were priests also. The Mexica were both farmers and hunter-gatherers, but they were mostly known by their brethren to be fierce warriors.

And on the latter front, they were tested — by remnants of the Toltec Empire. In fact, according to one version of their legacy, it was the Toltec warlords who pursued the Mexica and forced them to retreat to an island.

Suffice it to say, in these initial years when Tenochtitlan was still considered as a backwater settlement, the Mexica were not counted among the political elite of the region.

As such many of them peddled their status as fearsome warriors and inducted themselves as elite mercenaries of the numerous rival Toltec factions.

This shift in the balance of power in their favor fueled the Mexica to a dominant position in the region.

And together banding with their culturally-aligned, Nahuatl-speaking brethren from the allied cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan, the Mexica nobles and princes formed what is known as the Aztec Triple Alliance or the Aztec Empire.

This super-entity ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from the 15th century till the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.

As we can gather from the earlier entry, the Aztecs pertaining to an alliance of Nahuatl -speaking people were first and foremost a warrior society.

Relating to the last part of the statement, while the nobles and high-ranking members of the Aztec society played their crucial roles in both the political and military affairs, the Aztec military structure at least during the first half of 15th century theoretically adhered to the ideals of meritocracy.

Simply put, a commoner could also rise up to the rank of an Aztec warrior, on the condition that he proved his ferocity and valor in battle by not only killing but also capturing a certain number of enemies.

One of the first tasks the small boy had to perform related to the intensive physical labor of carrying heavy goods and crucial food supplies from the central marketplace.

And for that, he was only provided with a frugal meal of half a maize cake at the age of three, a full maize cake at the age of five, and one-and-a-half maize cake at the age of twelve.

These paltry portions encouraged the would-be Aztec warrior to subsist on meager food items. By the age of seven, the Aztec boy had to learn to maneuver his family boat and fish on Lake Texcoco.

Now we did mention that the Aztec military during the first half of the 15th-century theoretically adhered to a merit-based system.

However, as referenced in the Aztec Warrior AD by John Pohl , on the practical side of affairs, the warfare and military campaigns were conducted by the noble houses, who formed their own religiopolitical institutions.

Many of these schools were run by veteran warriors who were barely older than the pupils themselves, thus alluding to the demand and progression of military duties in the Aztec society.

In any case, one of the first tasks assigned to the teenager trainees focused on teamwork, and as such entailed investing their time in repairing and cleaning public works like canals and aqueducts.

This notion of societal interdependence was imparted from a very early age in most Aztec boys — which in many ways rather reinforced their sense of fraternity during actual military campaigns.

Contrary to popular ideas, discipline was one of the mainstays of the Aztec military — so much so that drunkenness during training could even result in the death penalty on rare occasions.

The youths were however introduced to real combat scenarios only during the major religious festivals that were mostly held in the central district of the city.

One of these series of ceremonies held between February and April was dedicated to the Aztec storm god Tlaloc and the war god Xipe , and the festivities inexorably brought forth their versions of vicious ritual combats.

Some of these scenarios sort of bridged the gap between bloody gladiatorial contests and melee fighting exhibitions, with high-ranking prisoners-of-war being forced to defend themselves from heavily armed Aztec opponents — which often resulted in fatalities.

At the same time, the veteran masters from both the Calmecac and Telpochcalli schools were asked to train their pupils in the art of handling various weapons, starting from slings, bows to spears and clubs.

These students were then encouraged to take part in mock battles against each other as teams, with reward systems of food and gifts.

These staged combat scenarios were perceived as rites of initiation for the young warriors, and as such the victors were often inducted into advanced training programs that focused on the handling of heavier melee weapons reserved for the elite fighters of the Aztec military.

The scope of ritual combat in the Aztec military was not just limited to the ceremonial confines of city-temple precincts, but rather extended to actual battlefields.

Interestingly enough, many of these Flower Wars participated by the young Calmecac and Telpochcalli warriors were conducted against the Tlaxcalans, who themselves constituted a powerful people with a Nahua cultural affinity shared with the Aztecs.

On occasions, the Aztecs reached a status-quo agreement with the mighty Tlaxcalans which outlined that the Xochiyaoyotl would be conducted in a bid to capture sacrificial prisoners, as opposed to conquering lands and taking away resources.

On the other hand, the status and rank of an Aztec warrior often depended on the number of capable enemies he had captured in battle.

In essence, the Flowers Wars, while maintaining their seemingly vicious religious veneer, pushed the Aztec military into a nigh perpetual state of warfare.

Such ruthless actions, in turn, produced the most fierce, battle-ready warriors who were required by the realm to conquer and intimidate the other Mesoamerican city-states in the region.

As we fleetingly mentioned before, the Aztec warriors used a range of weapons in combat scenarios, from slings, bows to spears and clubs.

But the signature Mesoamerican weapon preferred by some Aztec warriors pertained to the atlatl or spear-thrower. Possibly having its origins in the coastal hunting weapons furnished by their predecessors, the atlatl was commonly used by various Mesoamerican cultures like Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Maya.

According to expert Thomas J. Elpel —. The spur is a point that fits into a cavity at the back of a four to six-foot-long dart spear.

The dart is suspended parallel to the board, held by the tips of the fingers at the handgrip. It is then launched through a sweeping arm and wrist motion, similar to a tennis serve.

A fine-tuned atlatl can be used to throw a dart to yards, with accuracy at 30 to 40 yards. Suffice it to say, the atlatl as a precise weapon was pretty difficult to master, and as such was possibly used by a few elite Aztecs warriors.

On the battlefield, the macuahuitl was also accompanied by a longer halberd-like weapon known as the tepoztopilli , and it was probably used by less-experienced warriors whose job was to fend off enemy charges from the rear ranks.

The aforementioned heavy weapons were complemented with defensive cm diameter shields known as chimalli , made of fire-hardened cane reinforced with heavy cotton or even solid wood sheathed in copper.

These relatively large shields were bedecked with intricate featherworks, hanging cloth and leather pieces that doubled as light defenses for the legs , and heraldic insignias.

To that end, the image of a ferocious Aztec melee fighter with his gruesome macuahuitl and sturdy decorated chimalli is indeed an intimidating one.

But, as John Pohl mentioned, the scope was made even more terrifying with the adoption of specialized armor with their variant motifs — all based on the hardy quilted cotton set known as ichcahuipilli.

Like we mentioned before, the status and rank of an Aztec warrior often depended on the number of capable enemies he had captured in battle. And this achieved rank was signified by the uniform-style armor he wore on the battlefield.

For example, a Telpochcalli trained Aztec warrior who had captured two enemies was entitled to wear the cuextecatl , which comprised a conical hat and a tight bodysuit decorated with multi-colored feathers like red, blue and green.

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